Casting is a process in which liquid metal is poured into a desired hollow mold, the liquid metal is allowed to cool and solidify. This solidify part is known as ‘Casting’. The solidified part is taken out of the mold either by ejecting or breaking out out of the mold. This way the process gets completed.
There are other methods of metal forming but casting has its own advantages.whether it is adaptable to very complicated or detailed shapes, large products, and to heavy or mass production, it can produce parts having uniformly physical and chemical properties.
There are two main types of metal casting. Casting to shape and ingot casting. In ingot process molten metal is poured into a permanent mold that can be reused later. After solidification the products are processed mechanically into different new shapes. And in casting to shape process molten metal is poured into molds with cavity that provides the final shape. product is then taken under heat treatment and machining or welding. Though it depends on the specific application.
The important factor for production of good quality castings is Design. Other important factors are pouring temperature, gas evolution, mode of solidification and segregation of alloying elements. These factors control the final output. This way the physical and chemical properties are also affected. Casting defects are the result of exceedingly high pouring temperatures. These defects are due to excessive mold metal reactions.